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Alveolage : Type of the appearance of the cells of the crumb.
Amylases : Enzymes contained in flour and whose role is to degrade starch into simple sugars directly fermentable by yeast.
Artology : The art and knowledge of bread, from the cultivation of cereals through baking, fermentation, cooking and especially tasting, sensory analysis.
Artologist : An outstanding taster and technician, the artologist oversees all stages of bread production, from wheat to the table.
Autolysis : Unfermented dough with or without salt that is left to rest before incorporation into a normal kneading. Autolysis decreases toughness, increases tolerance and extensibility.
Bakery value : Ability to have a flour to form a beautiful bread, well developed, while having a good hydration capacity and good tolerance.
Baking force : Ability of flour to hydrate, then pasta to develop while keeping the carbon dioxide formed during fermentation. The bakery force is measured using the Chopin alveometer.
Bastard dough : Dough neither firm nor soft which hydrates from 57 to 65%.
Banneton : Canvas wicker basket in which the dough raises during the primer.
Blade strokes : Incisions given on dough pieces, before baking, to allow a better development of the bread.
Bouler : Operation by which one gives a regular form to the dough, one can bouler more or less tight.
Carotenoid Pigments : Aromatic Agents of Flour.
Controlled growth : Fermentation delayed by the cold.
Crust : Refers to a piece of dough whose part in contact with the air is dried because of a too low degree of hygrometry of the air. There is sometimes crusting also when the dough is in contact with a very dry object.
Dyeing : Period after the brewing, during which the bread cools and loses some of the water of the crumb.
Emulsifier : A product that can bind together materials with no affinity (such as water and oil).
Elasticity : The ability of a product to return to its original position after deformation.
Extensibility : The ability of a product to lie down without breaking.
Firm dough : Dough that hydrates from 52 to 57%.
Flatbread : Bread failure due to abnormal dough, lack of steam, or abnormal cooking conditions (oven too cold, for example).
Fog : Steam of water introduced into the oven before charging to delay the formation of the crust and give it a shiny appearance.
Frasage : Blend the ingredients to obtain a paste.
Hot oven : An oven above 250 ° C, or an oven that has just been heated.
Hydration : Quantity of water incorporated in the kneading, it is expressed by 100 kg of flour.
Iron bread : A bread that is burned in contact with the oven floor. A fault occurring when the hearth is too hot, or when a loaf is moved in the oven after a certain cooking time.
Key : The place where the bread was welded when turning or shaping.
Kiss : The rindless portion of a bread that has touched another during cooking.
Layer : Linen canvas on which the dough rises during the primer.
Lipoxygenase : Enzyme contained in wheat flour, but especially bean whose action will result in oxidation of the pigments of the dough (bleaching of the dough).
Medium oven : This is an oven with a temperature of 200 to 220 ° C.
Mold : Metal can used when baking some breads (bread).
Molding : Key.
Oven laying : Oven having found a thermal equilibrium after heating and a certain rest time.
Oxidation : Chemical reaction corresponding to an oxygen fixation or removal of hydrogen on a body.
Pointing : Fermentation period between the end of the kneading and the first toast.
Poolish : Culture of baker's yeast on a mixture of flour and water, liquid and undergoing fermentation before introduction into the final dough.
Primer : The fermentation period between the first toast and the first baked bread.
Protease : Enzyme contained in flour whose role is to degrade proteins into simpler elements (peptides, amino acids).
Relaxation : Dough rest period between division (or weighing) and shaping.
Rondine : If said of a bread having no grins. Fault due to abnormal paste, or poor cooking conditions (oven too hot for example).
Seized : Product, generally undeveloped, which was put in the oven at a temperature much higher than normal, leading to a colored product and little cooked.
Shaping : Operation at this stage, its final form bread, no longer requires further intervention (eg split).
Soft paste : Soft paste whose hydration is often greater than 65%.
Sprout : Pictorial expression translating fermentation (is named "Tom" of his little name)
Strength : Physical evolution of the dough during the fermentation where there is loss of flexibility and gain of tenacity.
Throw : Said of a bread whose blows of blade were well detached.
Torn : This is a dough that has been too tight during spinning or shaping and has a glutinous network broken. Externally it is found that the walls are no longer smooth but slightly cracked.
Turn to clear : Said a bread put to push with the molding in contact with the canvas.
Turn to gray : Said of a bread to push with the smooth part in contact with the canvas.
Turns : Operation consisting of beating or rolling and lengthening a dough.
Yeast : Craftsmanship of wild yeasts and various microorganisms on a mixture of flour and fairly firm water.